SHEYKH MAHAMMAD KHIYABANI:
And olsun sherefime, o Milletin ki istiqlaliyyeti yoxdur
hech bir sheyi yoxdur! (Sheyx memmed Xiyabani)
Sheikh Mahammad Khiyabani, the scientist, playing a great part in the Iran Revolution History, the thinker and politician was born in 1879 in the Khamna settlement, situated near the Tabriz City. After termination of the school that is situated in Khamna, went to his father Haji Abdulhamid's place that was engaged with the trade in Makhachgala, in a few terms he began to learn the religious sciences. Khiyabani studied at Angaji's place, the famous religious representative of Tabriz, was one of his remarkable students and advanced up to the Mujtahid rank1. Besides, Khiyabani mastered the astronomy and the arithmetic sciences of the famous astronomer Mirza Abdulali and became the eminent scientist on Islamic Philosophy and Literature.
Sheikh Mahammad Khiyabani won the sympathy of the population of Tabriz owning to his eloquent and beautiful speech, were the Imam and preacher in the Haji Karimkhan mosque of Khiyaban region following the advice of the famous religion figure and revolutionary Sigatulislam.
Khiyabani, speaking on human rights and freedoms in his speeches promoted the world outlook development of Tabriz population and said always: "the right is not granted, it is to be mastered."
And Khiyabani transmuted his pulpit in the mosque into propaganda rostrum with the purpose of dissemination of freedom and democracy ideas. Within 1907-1911 Khiyabani took an active part in the movement against totalitarian and shah regime and realized his struggle among the fighters. The party "Ijtimaiyyun-Amiyyun", comprehending his high scientific and social level, elected Khiyabani to Azerbaijan Provincial Society.
Khiyabani joined the revolution movement during the heaviest and crisis period of Azerbaijan history and realized his active struggle against the intern reactionary forces and the foreign sates: Russian, English, German and Ottoman states. Khiyabani created the first Democratic Party and democratic regime in South and Iran history. Even, in opinion of foreign historians, the Tabiz population had not seen the prosperity and security like those within the period of the democratic regime directed by him.
Within this period several below has been delivered to Mashruta regime:
The first below: in 1907, after the signing of Mashruta law Mohammadali Mirza, occupying the place of Muzaffaraddin shah tried liquidate the Mashruta by means of help of Russian State.
The second below in 1907 the tsar government was signed the agreement with England. According to this agreement Iran was divided into two authority regions: Russia in North and England in South. The third - the Russian Cossack Liakhov fired a cannon to the Iran Forum.
The fourth - the Russian Cossacks and were destroyed Tabriz city and its population under instigation of Mohammadali Mirza and the intern forces.
The fifth - the Tsar Government presented the ultimatum to Iran Sate in order that it adopts the agreement concluded in 1907.
Khiyabani, by means of organization of the great meeting in the square, spoke distinctly negative against the states concluding of the agreement and the leaders of Iran state who were adopted the provisions of foregoing did. Notwithstanding that the head of Tehran Police Office tried to arrest him, he did not find him. Khiyabani arrived to Mashad and through this city he went to Ashgabad and Makhachgal via Baku road and after a few term he returned to Tabriz.
Within the period of the second Forum when Khiyabani was advocate was member of Iran Democratic Party formed in Tehran.
After returning to Tabriz, Khiyabani was established the DemocraticParty of South Azerbaijan and commenced his underground activity.
When the 1917th Revolution was appeared in Russia the SouthAzerbaijan Democratic Party commenced its legal activity, on April 09, 1917 the first number of the newspaper "Tajaddud" and on April 30 the first article of Khiyabani "The truth will conquer" was appeared in this newspaper. He wrote: the time of carrying out of Mashruta rules is reached. It is necessary to say the truth openly." In his second article Khiyabani wrote: the Tsar Russia - the most aggressive and totalitarian state all over the world was already disintegrated. Today the Iranian peoples have to protect and execute the Mashruta rules obtained at the expense of their blood." Khiyabani required the realization of election in conformity with Mashruta rules.
After a long term crisis the candidates from the different points of Iran were elected to the third Forum, but Eyneddovia and the other reactionary groups in Azerbaijan, interfering with the election affairs, were tore up the election papers. Therefore, the candidates were not took place in this period of election, the third period of the Forum was lasted only 39 days, then the long-term crisis period was started.
In 1918 Azerbaijan Democratic Party continued its activity in very difficult conditions. In this period the Russian armed forces were obliged to leave Iran as a result of Revolution. The English armed forces occupied the vacant places. The English spies as Rzazade were send to Tabriz. On other hand, the armed forces of Ottoman state, allied with German attacked to Azerbaijan from northern-western side. In addition, the Armenian armed forces in Urmiya set fire to all cities and the market.
The head of the English Political Office arrived here to study the situation of Tabriz meeting with Khiyabani put several questions to him and demanded about the current necessity of Azerbaijan. Khiyabany answered him: "Azerbaijan is inseparable part of Iran. The population of Azerbaijan want to see the performance of the provisions of Constitution obtained at the expense of their blood and the reform in all the points of the country". It is to notice that in 1941the desire of "Azerbaijan Society" and in 1945- of "Azerbaijan Democratic Party" consisted of this argument.
On September 1919 Khiyabani said: "We want that our people formed as real nation and all enterprises transformed to the national enterprises. It is the first step to carry out the Mashruta regime. We will realize of all our desires beginning from Tabriz and in all territory of Iran."
Within the period when Khiyabani was the head of the national government realized lots of reform in Tabriz within a few time. He appointed Abulgasim Fiayazat the Minister of Education. He established the first women schools named "Mahammadiyya" and "Hikmet". He gave instruction to teach the lessons in Azerbaijani in schools. Lots of teacher was invited from Baku.
The Financial Minister sent from Tehran and the deputy was dismissed of the work and the other persons were appointed in their posts. Khiyabani wanted to create the rules, which serve the security of population. The foreign citizen came to Tabriz were spoken about security of high degree within the national government of Khiyabani. All office affairs, publication offices, meetings and speeches were carried out only in Azerbaijan.
Sheikh Muhammad Khiyabani loved his native country. He died for the freedom of his native land.
Haji Sheikh Hasani Miyanachi, the close friend of Khiyabani wrote about the death of Khiyabani: "In order to kill the revolutionaries Mukhbirussaltana gave order to attack to Entrance Door of Tabriz after a long negotiations with the head of national armed forces Bagirkhan Salar and his next desire was to see Khiyabani died or arrested." When the Cossacks attacked to Entrance Door Khiyabani was obliged to change his place. One of the close friend of Khiyabani, Sartibzade said:" do not leave the apartment until L will come". But he did not come. Khiyabani after 4 hours of waiting his friend left the apartment.
The grandson of Khiyabani said: "When Khiyabani came at our place he said that Sartibzade obliged him to wait for him within four hours, I could leave the city during this period. The sole version was to leave the apartment. My wife helped me". The grandson of Sheikh Miyanachi: "My grand father accepted him with great respect. Then my grandfather said to Khiyabani: Allow me to go at Mukhbirussaltana's place and demand your freedom. Khiyabani answered: No, I appreciate your personality from the positive side, but he... is not worth to your visit". Then Khiyabani added the following speaking about Mukhbirussaltana: "I gave a lot of offers to this dishonest person he did not accepted, never I did not believe that my friend would betray me."